UPDATED TEMPLATE ON THE 9-5-2019 WITH THE TRANSPOSITION OF THE EUROPEAN DIRECTIVE
This text wants to be an exhaustive base to create legislations to protect whistleblowers adapting it to the needs, culture and context of each country, nation or region. We invite you to present it in your parliament for its implementation.
License: as we have done in the explanatory statement where all the works that inspired the text are reviewed, when you adopt it we ask you to recognize the authorship of the source, in this case Xnet.
Other related information -> Proliferation of safe and anonymous mailboxes that are not: https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/11/08/warning-to-spanish-and-other-whistleblowers-anonymous-boxes-which-are-not-anonymous/]
PROPOSED TEXT OF THE DRAFT LAW ON PROTECTION OF WHISTLEBLOWERS
The present Law aims to contribute towards the consolidation of systems monitoring and reporting irregularities in the public and private spheres, and providing in both domains consistent protection for whistleblowers, who, when it would seem that the public interest is harmed or threatened, disclose information on breaches and concerning wrongdoing in the public administration and in private companies or entities. A further objective is regulating internal and external reporting channels in branches of the administration and private companies or entities, establishing which obligations must be met by those responsible in the public and private spheres, and also the consequences which might derive from their non-observance through the penalty system, in order to put an end, with all these measures, to systematic abuses.
The present draft Law has been drawn up by Xnet* – activist group that works on the renewal of democracy – on the basis of the “Decalogue for the Protection of Whistleblowers” of the Citizen Group against Corruption of which Xnet is a founding member and, as recognised in our legal system, the principle concerning the duty of every citizen with knowledge of the perpetration of a crime to make it known to the authority concerned (in Spain established in articles 259 and 262 of the Criminal Procedure Act). This draft Law has been drawn up including, adapting, and updating several sources, among them texts being used or discussed in other thematic areas and geographical locations. Noteworthy among these texts are the On Prevention of Corruption Act No. 1700-VII (Ukraine, 2014), the Protected Disclosures Act (Ireland, 2014), the Dutch Whistleblowers Act (The Netherlands, 2016), the Whistleblower Protection Act (Hellenic Anti-corruption Organization, Greece, 2017), and the recommendations of, among others, Whistleblowers of the organisation Blueprint for Free Speech, Whistleblowers International Network, European Center for Whistleblower Rights, Public Concern, Whistleblowing for Change, Courage Foundation, Expose Facts, various rulings of the European Court of Human Rights, the Spanish Organic Law 19/1994 of 23 December, on the Protection of Witnesses and Expert Witnesses in Criminal Cases and, to the extent that it has been taken as a reference, its model for full protection of victims, Organic Law 1/2004, of 28 December, on Comprehensive Protection Measures against Gender Violence.
It also includes the guidelines of the “European Parliament resolution of 24 October 2017 on legitimate measures to protect whistleblowers acting in the public interest when disclosing the confidential information of companies and public bodies” and the Directive (EU) 2019/… of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of persons reporting on breaches of Union law.
In the sphere of public administration, the functioning of which is governed by principles of legality and effectiveness of the government authorities, and also in that of private businesses whose size or turnover affects rights and the interests of the vast majority of the societies in which they operate, transparency should be the norm and secrecy the exception.
Cooperation from citizens and organised civil society groups in reporting irregularities is one of the most effective measures for exposing and combating corruption and abuses which affect the whole society. Besides the moral, legal and political problems entailed by this, there are also technical problems and, as such, they need to be approached pragmatically in order to deal with them specifically and efficiently.
In addition, the present law, making a distinction between denunciation and reporting, seeks to go beyond articles 259 and 264 of the Criminal Procedural Code which formulate a distributed responsibility for the protection of the general interests, and correct the difficulty of compliance with these articles due to the exposure to which reporting persons are subjected.
The express wording of Article 259 of the Spanish Criminal Procedure Act stipulates the obligation of any person who is witness to the perpetration of any crime against the public interest to report this immediately to the nearest trial judge, justice of the peace, at the regional or municipal level, or to a tax official. Moreover, Article 264 of the Act establishes that any person who, by any means not included among those mentioned in the preceding articles, has knowledge of the perpetration of the type of offence which should be prosecuted de ex-officio must report it to the Public Prosecutor, the Court with jurisdiction in the matter, a trial judge, a municipal judge, or police authority. However, it is not stipulated that the person reporting the offence must provide proof thereof or bring a formal lawsuit against the offender.
But as a general rule, whistleblowers who report information on breaches do so at considerable personal risk and, accordingly, pay a high personal and professional price, although reporting misconduct is essential for protecting the public interest as well as supporting accountability and integrity in both public and private sectors.
Hence, it is necessary to have a law which protects anybody who is privy to any kind of wrongdoing so that this person would be able to provide relevant evidence without reprisals. Without such protection, whistleblowers and people who assist them face any kind of possible retaliation—from lawsuits for alleged calumny and defamation, protection of personal data and intellectual property of embezzlers, through to harassment, mobbing and dismissal in the case of employees or executives in public and private corporations. They are subject to an overwhelming burden of costs and a variety of forms of injustice which deter most people from reporting or making known unlawful conduct, irregularities and crimes.
Moreover, the difficulties entailed in providing proof and paying the costs of legal proceedings reveal a situation of asymmetry of forces between the public and institutions or corporations, making it impossible in practice for people to fulfil their duty as citizens to report any information on breaches of which they may be aware, as well as to report improper behaviour, irregularities or illegal activities.
The Law proposed here aims to strengthen monitoring and reporting systems for cases of wrongdoing in the private and public spheres. These are already offered in general by the legal system in the forms of witness protection and expert witnesses, but it is also deemed necessary to express and offer consistent protection to whistleblowers and facilitators or, in other words, any person who reports threats and wrongdoing that could harm the public interest.
Legislation for protecting whistleblowers has existed in the Anglo-Saxon world since 1778. However, the first legal definition of the term “whistleblowing” came after Ralph Nader, the American political activist noted for his involvement in consumer protection, gave the term positive connotations in 1972 when he defined it as “an act of a man or woman who, believing that the public interest overrides the interest of the organization he serves, blows the whistle that the organization is involved in corrupt, illegal, fraudulent or harmful activity”.
A 2014 EU Anti-Corruption Report (3 February) estimates that, “Corruption alone is estimated to cost the EU economy EUR 120 billion per year, just a little less than the annual budget of the European Union”. Public procurement is one of the areas of government that is most vulnerable to corruption, costing the EU 5.3 billion euros every year. The report also notes that, “Adequate whistleblowing mechanisms that codify processes within public administrations to allow official channels for reporting what they may perceive as irregularities or even illegal acts can help overcome detection problems inherent to corruption (and indeed in other areas).” These areas include basic rights.
A 2016 “Global Fraud Study” by ACFE (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners) which analyses more than 2,400 cases of fraud in 114 countries calculates that some 40 per cent of these have been disclosed by whistleblowers.
On 24 October 2017, the European Parliament adopted a European-wide resolution on legitimate measures to protect whistleblowers acting in the public interest when disclosing confidential information of companies and public bodies which gives evidence of irregularities and crimes. This resolution culminated with the adoption of the Directive (EU) 2019/… of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of persons reporting on breaches of Union law.
The European Court of Human Rights interprets reporting of wrongdoing in the public interest as a form of freedom of expression as enshrined in Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which is ratified by all EU member states.
Consequently, legal protection of whistleblowers is also reflecting the aim pursued in Article 151 of the Lisbon Treaty, taken in relation with Article 153, 1b, referring to “working conditions” and the EU law protects whistleblowers in its Directive on Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing.
The report pertaining to the Resolution “Legitimate measures to protect whistleblowers acting in the public interest”, approved in the European Parliament on 24 October 2017, includes some very important recommendations, as reflected in the law, for measures contemplating the possibility of anonymous reports of wrongdoing, the possibility of direct disclosure to third parties including members of the press or NGOs, in addition to measures concerning professional, legal, physical and economic protection for whistleblowers reporting corruption and misconduct. The Resolution contemplates strong, transversal protection of whistleblowers, embracing public and private sectors in order to favour the struggle against corruption and fraud and to reinforce justice, health, the environment and democracy.
The use of technological tools allows us to be more efficient in protecting the confidentiality and anonymity of those who provide relevant information. This makes it possible for us to correct this asymmetry. We must preserve the anonymity of private persons because they are vulnerable when they expose themselves to serve the common good.
The difference between anonymity and confidentiality resides in the fact that anonymity is the only way a source of information can wholly manage her or his own protection and the use that is made of the information. The weaknesses and porosity of reporting systems based solely on confidentiality have been amply demonstrated. Besides, there are additional and evident dangers in centralising all the power (information) in just a few hands, namely those of company directors and senior office holders in the public administration.
It is obvious that companies and institutions must meet their obligations for transparency and implement systems for monitoring irregularities. However, even so, it is not possible to avoid abuse by trusting in some sort of self-regulation since fraud and corruption tend to be located in the privileged echelons of these internal systems. Hence, we must take advantage of the opportunities now being held out by technology and outline channels enabling a distributed citizen monitoring and disclosure.
Anonymity is the more robust protection that can be offered to a citizen whistleblower. This has been recognised by the Public Prosecutor in Spain since 1993, and also in a range of provisions in the legal system as a just and necessary type of channel. A similar view is taken by organisations like the United Nations, for example in its 2015 Report on Encryption, Anonymity, and the Human Rights Framework.
The draft Law presented here is divided into five titles, starting with an Introductory Title, which explains that the aim of the Law is none other than to establish measures for the protection of people who disclose information concerning illegal or bad practices which jeopardise the public interest. A related objective is to regulate reporting channels for internal and external reports of wrongdoing in the administration, companies and entities, as well as the consequences which might be incurred by non-observance in the domain of penalty procedure, and thereby aspiring to introduce measures that can be applied from a position of social consensus to put an end to systematic abuse from the ethical, democratic, legal and social perspectives.
Title I, General Provisions, defines the subjective scope of the Law’s application (Chapter I), for example the kinds of information on breaches for the enforcement purposes of the Law, and which people are deemed to be whistleblowers and facilitators (Chapter II). These specifications aim to extend protection not only to whistleblowers who are privy to information concerning fraud and corrupt practices in the public and private corporations covered by the present Law, but also to whistleblower facilitators, these including physical persons and legal entities such as NGOs, citizen platforms, and the media, inter alia, which permit or enable a disclosure made by a whistleblower or any person reporting information on breaches. Using facilitators as a cover is a common practice among whistleblowers and anyone reporting information on breaches when they find someone who will guarantee their anonymity and offer some protection of their person and their family. Hence the Law’s primary objective, in accordance with the system of guarantees for whistleblowers, is also to offer protection for disclosers and facilitators involved in the case.
On the other hand, although in other countries, such as the United States or Germany, the person can be consider whistleblower even if he or she acts in exchange for economic compensation, in the Spanish contest, with a high degree of corruption, It has been considered more appropriate to omit this possibility so that the criterion of reasonable belief of the truthfulness of the information could not be clouded by this assumption and in no case we must enter into the assessment of the practical or ethical motivations of the whistleblower.
Chapter I of Title II stipulates the rights of and guarantees for whistleblowers and facilitators reporting information on breaches, from the basic right of personal and family security (Article 6) to the right to confidentiality and anonymity as the whistleblower’s basic tools (Article 7), in addition to the right to information and case files, and to attend procedural actions resulting from reporting information on breaches (Article 8), and the right to free legal advice (Article 9) as guarantees of being able to face legal procedures that might be initiated against the whistleblower as a consequence of disclosures of information on breaches and that would otherwise constitute an economic impediment to reporting fraud, corruption and other crimes.
Chapter II details specific measures for protecting the employment and economic activity of whistleblowers as these tend to be the most usual targets in reprisals when citizens report wrongdoing. The fact that a whistleblower might be part of an organic or corporate structure that is affected by irregularities or unlawful activity is taken into account, as is the possibility that this may not be the case, or that the whistleblower may be self-employed.
Chapter III, concerned with the other side of this system of rights and guarantees, establishes a liability regime concerning responsibility of whistleblowers who are thus required to be reasonably convinced of the credibility and reliability of the information they report or reveal. Hence, while the burden of proof of possible crimes or activities against the public interest must fall on the organism or institution in charge of the inquiry and not on the whistleblower, any person who, aware of untruths or inaccuracy in the information disclosed and using the whistleblower system to convey false information, will be held responsible. This behaviour will be punished precisely by means of this Law with the express aim of not detracting in any way from citizen support which has proven to be indispensable in the struggle against corruption and is therefore worthy of protection.
Title III is concerned with information systems and reporting channels for disclosure to be used by whistleblowers, giving priority to their freedom of choice (Article 19) and respecting the pace of introducing internal systems for reporting information on breaches in corporations and public and private entities, while always guaranteeing that the reporting channels made available to whistleblowers will be anonymous and secure and, failing that, ensuring that they are informed of the absence of these assurances (Article 15) so that citizens will be informed in advance of the risks they will be taking and the kinds of protection they will be afforded.
Title IV focuses on the creation of an Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators, which will ensure that whistleblowers and facilitators do not suffer any form of isolation, persecution or worsening of working or professional conditions, or any measure involving any form of prejudice or discrimination, in addition to providing them with legal assistance and legal representation in judicial and administrative proceedings that may result from the report.
Finally, Title V envisages the application of a penalty system with regard to protection of whistleblowers, with the definition of a set of offences (Article 38) and penalties (Article 39) with a view to dissuading those affected by disclosures of crimes and infractions from taking reprisals against whistleblowers, while also punishing such conduct and indemnifying victims when reprisals have already occurred. The catalogue of offences and penalties established will be applied by the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators.
Article 1.- Objective.
1. The aim of this Law is to establish measures to protect those people who disclose information concerning possible wrongdoing or unlawful acts or omissions or malfeasance which affect the public interest or defeat the object or the purpose of the State and European Union rules, and which occur within public administrations, the public sector and public or private companies or entities.
2. This Law also regulates information systems and reporting channels for disclosing wrongdoing, established by the public administration or by private companies or entities, in order to receive such reports.
3. The Law regulates the administrative bodies responsible for ensuring that the protection measures enshrined herein are duly complied with, and for supervising the procedures for the verification of the reported information.
4. Finally, the Law establishes the regime of infractions and applicable sanctions for the infringement of its content.
1. The Law will be applicable in the following public authorities:
a) The National State Administration and the Administrations of the Autonomous Communities, of the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, and of other entities comprising Local Administration.
b) The managing bodies and joint services of Social Security and also mutual insurance companies for accidents at work and occupational illnesses working with Social Security.
c) Autonomous organisms, State Agencies, public corporations, entities owned or controlled by a public legal entity, and public law bodies which, being operationally independent or with a special autonomy recognised by law, are responsible for external regulatory and supervisory functions with regard to a particular sector or activity.
d) Public law bodies with their own legal personality, linked with or dependent on the Public Administration, including Public Universties and Independent Authorities.
2. The Law will likewise be applied to Public Law corporations, the Household of H.M. the King, the Lower House in the Spanish Parliament, the Senate, the Constitutional Court and the General Council of the Judiciary, the Bank of Spain, the Council of State, the Ombudsman, the Court of Audit, the Economic and Social Council, and the analogous institutions in the Autonomous Regions, commercial companies in which the direct or indirect participation in the public share capital exceeds 50 per cent, public sector foundations included in legislation concerning foundations, and associations constituted by the public authorities, organisms and entities specified in this article.
3. The Law is applicable to the following legal entities:
a) Political parties, trade-unions and business organisations.
b) Private entities of any kind which receive public funds when one of the two following circumstances apply:
– if, over a period of one year, they receive funding, grants or any other kind of income from the entities listed in the two previous sections to an amount exceeding 100,000 euros;
– when at least 50% of the total annual income is in the nature of public funding or subsidy whenever this is in excess of 50,000 euros.
c) Private companies whose annual turnover is equal to or exceeds two million euros, or when they form part of a group of companies whose volume equals or exceeds that figure.
a) A whistleblower: It is a reporting person, that is, any natural person who, having reasonable grounds to believe that the information reported, to which he or she had access, was true at the time of reporting and that the information fell within the scope of this Law, constituting a reason to blow the whistle and disclose information on wrongdoing, notifies it to a third party or third parties, reporting to an administration or the judiciary or informing the public prosecutor, or through a reporting channel especially established for this purpose, or through public disclosure. Any person who makes such a report in exchange for financial remuneration or payment in the form of assets of any kind is not considered to be a whistleblower under the scope of this Law. Apart from this exception, the motivation of the whistleblower is irrelevant.
The reports covered by this Law are not considered to be complaints within the meaning of the Criminal Procedure Code. Therefore, the whistleblower will not be considered a claimant and it will not be necessary to disclose his or her identity, without this fact violating the rights of defence of the persons concerned.
b) Information on breaches: any information that, presented together with supporting evidence or reliable indications, provides reasonable suspicions about the actual or potential perpetration of illegal activity, wrongdoing, or breaches, the consequences of which affect not only the authority or private entity concerned but extend beyond them to harm or threaten the public interest, which can contain information about the commission of public offences and crimes and/or about offences and crimes that can be prosecuted ex officio by the competent authorities.
Information that is already fully available in the public domain, or from unsubstantiated rumours and hearsay, is not considered ‘information on breaches.
c) Facilitator: a natural person or legal entity who or which contributes, assists or aids the whistleblower to reveal or make public information on breaches.
d) Channels for disclosing wrongdoing or reporting channels: systems or mechanisms for communicating and conveying information that are made available to any person in possession of information on breaches, when they meet the requirements specified in Title III of this Law. These channels can be internal, when they are established by the administration or private entity in order to receive reports of wrongdoing in their sphere of activity, or they can be external, when taking the form of channels equipped by any other entity or platform and made available to any person for the purposes of disclosure of wrongdoing.
e) Public disclosure: making information on breaches available to the public domain.
f) Public interest: avoiding or disclosing illegal activities, wrongdoing or abuses within or committed by:
1) the public administration and organizations depending on or controlled by the public administration;
2) any person or entity affecting more than 10% of the population of a legal constituency.
g) Retaliation: any direct or indirect act or omission which occurs in a work-related context prompted by the internal or external reporting or by public disclosure, and which causes or may cause unjustified detriment to the whistleblower.
Article 4.- Information on breaches.
1. Information on breaches may be about illegal practices and wrongdoing which harm and threaten the public interest, independently of whether they have already been carried out, are in the process of being carried out, or are likely to be carried out, or whether they occur within or outside State borders.
2. Information concerning wrongdoing in, but not limited to, all the following areas, is deemed to constitute information on breaches:
a) Any criminal offences, intentional or reckless;
b) Human rights violations, attacks on fundamental freedoms, workers’ rights and other social rights as well as on the rule of law;
c) Accidents, disasters, natural hazards and other emergencies which may have occurred, or which may occur in the future;
d) Practices entailing risks to human life and health, or any other threat to security or physical integrity, public health, transport safety, food safety and animal health, consumer and user rights, national and global security, radiation protection and nuclear safety, privacy and personal data protection, security of network and information systems and the protection of the environment;
e) Wrongdoing in the administrative or corporate sphere, in public or private entities, related with abuse of authority, conflicts of interest, corruption, embezzlement of public funds, prevarication, influence peddling, tax avoidance and fraud, illicit financial flows, financial responsibility and security, infringements of competition law and open competition, and rules regarding State’s aid and subsidies, as well as infringements relating to financial services, products and markets, and prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing, among others;
f) Disciplinary or administrative misconduct with regards to privacy, data protection, or any other act of negligence or omission by government agencies or public authorities or any of their employees, legal entities, their officials and their staff, abuse of power, abuse of authority, gross mismanagement, conflicts of interest, miscarriages of justice, breaches of legal obligations;
g) Acts to cover up any of these breaches;
h) Any other information not covered in the preceding sections which reveals harm or a threat to the public interest;
i) In any case, it can be considered information on breaches the infringements falling within the scope of the Union acts, and subsequent amendments, set out in the Annex (Parts I and II) to the Directive (EU) 2019/… of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of persons reporting on breaches of Union law.
3. It will not be an obstacle for the communication and reception of the information on breaches the fact that it includes special categories of personal data, defined by the Organic Law 3/2018, of 5 December, on Personal Data Protection and guarantee of digital rights, under the European Regulation 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 27 April 2016, General Data Protection Regulation, and according to the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights on the Hungarian Helsinki Committee case regarding the FOI, in order to guarantee full respect for the right to information, when the information is published. This exception will only cover personal information directly related to the alleged illegal actions (e.g. the identification – name of the person/s –). The personal data related to the private sphere that does not provide any informative value (e.g. personal telephone numbers, email address, home address, …) will be omitted.
The exception will not extend in any case to the publication of information related to third parties to which they are not in any way attributable any wrongdoing. These people have to remain unidentifiable. The fulfilment of this reservation will be under the responsibility of the person who makes the publication.
4. The fact that the information on breaches is classified as protected data, as stipulated in the Intellectual Property Law, is not an impediment to receive, communicate and disclose such information.
5. The fact that the information on breaches is protected by the professional rules applicable is not an impediment to receive, communicate and disclose such information when it is necessary to reveal the committed breach.
6. Access to information on breaches shall enjoy immunity from civil, administrative or labour liability, both in cases where, the whistleblowers reveal the content of documents to which they have lawful access even when their disclosure constitutes a contract infringement or other clauses concerning the property of the information, as well as in cases where they make copies of documents to which the whistleblower does not usually have access, for example, when the whistleblower accesses the emails of a co-worker or the files of a department to which he or she does not normally have access.
7. The disclosure of information on breaches according to this Law does not constitute breach of contractual rules or clauses on confidentiality, trade secrets, intellectual property or data protection, provided in any kind of contract, governed by civil law, corporate law, administrative law or labour law, and thus, the whistleblower shall not be considered liable for its infringement according to civil, criminal or disciplinary rules applicable. Any contractual clause that forbids whistleblowing or disclosing information on breaches shall be declared void.
8. In legal proceedings in which the damage suffered by the whistleblower and/or facilitator as a result of retaliation that has resulted from the communication or disclosure of information on breaches made by him/her, it shall be presumed that the damage was caused in retaliation for the communication or disclosure. In such cases, it shall be for the person who carried out the harmful action to prove that this measure was based on duly justified grounds, unrelated to the communication or disclosure.
9. In cases where information on breaches is classified under categories of national security, official or military secrets, or classified information, professional secrecy and of communications between clients and their lawyers, professional secrecy and of communications between health professionals and their patients, secrecy of judicial deliberations, this information may be received and communicated but it cannot be indiscriminately published or the object of public disclosure. The necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure that national security will not be jeopardised when disclosing the breaches. Public disclosure is deemed justified in cases of urgent or serious threats to public health, national security and defence, and the environment.
TITLE II. RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF WHISTLEBLOWERS AND FACILITATORS
CHAPTER I. RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES OF WHISTLEBLOWERS AND FACILITATORS
Article 5.- Rights assisting whistleblowers and facilitators.
The rights to security, anonymity and confidentiality, even against the people receiving and managing the process resulting from the communication of the information on breaches, access to case files and procedural action, legal advice and indemnity, are guaranteed to whistleblowers and facilitators. In any case, the rights provided in this Law may not be waived or limited by any agreement, policy, form or condition of employment, including a pre-dispute arbitration agreement.
Article 6.- Right to security and prohibition on retaliation.
1. Any form of retaliation is prohibited, whether direct or indirect, including threats and attempts of retaliation, against the person, family, co-workers or managers, or properties or organizations with which the whistleblower and/or facilitator is connected.
2. Whistleblowers and facilitators will be given police protection when they report that their lives, bodily integrity or property are in danger, or are threatened as a consequence of communicating or disclosing the information. In this case, all measures of preventive protection stipulated in the Law on Protection of Witnesses and Experts in Criminal Cases (Title IV) and in the Victim’s Statute must be applied to stop and avoid threats and retaliation against the whistleblower and/or the facilitator.
3. The same measures will be applied, when necessary, to spouses, spousal equivalents, as well as to relatives of both by kinship ties until the second degree of consanguinity or affinity.
Article 7.- The whistleblower’s right to confidentiality and anonymity.
1. Public authorities shall guarantee the whistleblower’s and facilitator’s rights to confidentiality and protection of their anonymity, if chosen by them, and that their identity will not be revealed to anyone without their explicit consent. This right is also applicable to other data and information from which the identity of the whistleblower and/or the facilitator can be inferred directly or indirectly.
2. Facilitators and any other public or private individuals to whom the whistleblower has revealed his or her identity while also clearly indicating the desire to remain anonymous are obliged to respect this anonymity and not to reveal the whistleblower’s identity under any circumstances.
3. Reporting channels will protect these rights in accordance with the conditions set out in Articles 15 and following of this Law.
4. Whistleblowers can use a reporting channel to communicate the information on breaches in conditions of confidentiality, which is to say making their identity known but clearly indicating that they do not wish it to be made public, or enabling the traceability of their identity (providing information from which it can be deduced, for example, leaving their IP visible or not using an anonymous and secure channel). In this case, personal data or any other information revealing the identity of the whistleblower cannot be divulged without his or her express consent. All the authorized personnel or the personnel having access to the information received through a reporting channel, even in an unauthorized or incidental manner, shall be bound by the terms set out in the second paragraph of this Article and by the responsibilities arising from the commission of the offences defined as discovery and disclosure of secrets.
5. With the exception indicated in the first paragraph of this Article, only the whistleblower can decide about the eventual waiver to anonymity and/or confidentiality. This may occur at any point during the proceedings.
Article 8.- Right to information, access to case files, and concerning procedural actions.
1. All whistleblowers, including those who have chosen to disclose information anonymously or confidentially, have the right to be informed about the current situation and results of any inquiry, inspection and investigation which may have arisen from their disclosures, with the exception for information which may jeopardise the investigations.
2. Whistleblowers’ right of access to this information will be guaranteed ex officio, or at the request of the whistleblower so that he or she will be informed of the state of proceedings at least every ninety calendar days.
Article 9.- Right to legal advice and defence
1. Whistleblowers and facilitators, or people considering to report information on breaches have the right to receive prior legal advice, tailored to their specific case, by the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators, at least concerning the information established in Article 17, in the terms laid down in Article 24.e).
2. Whistleblowers and facilitators have the right to be advised and assisted by a practising lawyer in all proceedings related with communication of information on breaches and in all actions deriving from or resulting from it, as indicated in article 24.e).
3. From the beginning of the procedure and irrespective of the existence of economic resources to litigate, whistleblowers and facilitators have the right to immediate pro bono legal advice and defence when being charged or investigated in legal proceedings linked with, deriving from, or that are a consequence of their status as such. In any case, it will be the same lawyer appointed ex officio who will represent the whistleblower or facilitator in any procedure derived or consequence of the communication of the information on breaches, both in the primary instance and in the seat of appeal.
4. Whistleblowers and facilitators have the status of interested parties in all procedures arising from their disclosure of information. These procedures will be contradictory by nature, and will guarantee, when applicable, confidentiality or the anonymity of the whistleblowers’ identity.
5. Bar Associations, will guarantee the specific training of the lawyers registered for ex officio duty that represent and defend whistleblowers and facilitators so that they provide effective advice and defence in cases involving corruption and whistleblowers’ and facilitators’ protection.
6. Bar Associations will adopt the necessary measures for the urgent designation of an ex officio lawyer in procedures to be initiated at the request of the whistleblower or the facilitator.
7. Bar Associations must provide the information established in Article 17 of this Law to the public in an easily understandable and accessible manner. In addition, they must offer free and individual legal advice services about this information, tailoring the information to the specific case of the possible whistleblower and/or facilitator. In any case, the members assigned to this service must maintain the confidentiality and secrecy of the information to which they gain access. Under no circumstances may these services be subject to retaliations that affect their day-to-day performance.
8. When the advice and information indicated in the preceding paragraph is provided by facilitators, like civil society organisations, they must also maintain the confidentiality and secrecy of the information to which they gain access. Public authorities will assure that these facilitators do not suffer from retaliation that may affect their day-to-day performance.
1. Whistleblowers and facilitators have the right to occupational and professional indemnity, among others that their working relationship and contracts and individual agreements signed when self-employed with employers and public or private contractors who should not present obstacles to the whistleblower’s and facilitator’s employment, or professional, economic, social, scientific, academic, or any other kind of activity.
2. When the whistleblower and/or facilitator suffer damage following disclosure of wrongdoing as a result of arbitrary decisions, acts or omissions, by a public servant, employee, business person, or any member of a public or private institution or entity when exercising their authority, the whistleblower or facilitator will be compensated at the cost of this public or private institution or entity, by means of the appropriate procedure for the objective assessment of damages before the corresponding instance or court, where appropriate precautionary measures may be taken to protect the whistleblower or facilitator from the consequences of such decisions, acts or omissions.
Article 11.- Measures to protect civil servant whistleblowers and/or facilitators or employed by the public administration.
When the whistleblower and/or facilitator is a civil servant, public employee, part-time worker, or permanent or temporary employee in any branch of the public administration or entity within its jurisdiction, he or she will enjoy the following rights for the duration of the procedure:
a) The right not to be sanctioned by, or to suffer any kind of reprisal from, the administration or private entity depending or controlled by the public administration by means of dismissal with loss of civil service status, penalties, suspension, transfer, demotion to another position with a lower salary, deterioration in working conditions or any other similar measures, or in the form of any threat to apply such measures;
b) The right, if reporting the imposition of any penalty or reprisal among those listed in the previous section and, in accordance with the terms established in the Basic Statute of Public Employees, to reduce or reorganise his or her working schedule, to geographical mobility, to transfer to another workplace, to voluntary unpaid leave with job security, and to termination of employment with the legal compensation owing to the employer’s serious breach of his or her obligations;
c) The right, if dismissed, to opt for immediate restoration of his or her status as a civil servant in accordance with the terms of the Royal Decree 2669/1998, of 11 December, which approves the procedure to be followed for rehabilitation of civil servants in the public administration, or for payment of compensation for wrongful dismissal, and also the procedural salary in both cases. Moreover, should the whistleblower or facilitator be dismissed, he or she has the right to decide between immediate restoration to his or her position, or payment of compensation for wrongful dismissal, in addition to the procedural salary in both cases;
d) The right, if working conditions are substantially modified, to immediate restoration of the former conditions, and also to receive the difference in unpaid income during the period of modification should this be the case;
e) Under the terms stipulated in the General Social Security Law, suspension and termination of employment in the public sector, or of a job contract as described in the previous sections, will give rise to a situation of official unemployment. The period of suspension will be regarded as one of effective contributions in terms of Social Security and unemployment benefits.
Article 12.- Measures to protect employed whistleblowers and/or facilitators and Social Security provisions.
When the whistleblower or facilitator is an employee, former employee, or member of any company or private entity concerning which he or she has provided information on breaches, which has given rise to the initiation of an internal or external liability procedure, he or she will enjoy the following rights for the duration of this process:
a) The right not to be sanctioned by, or to suffer reprisals of any kind from, the employer, manager, or any other employee or member of the company or private entity concerned, in the form of dismissal, penalties, suspension, transfer, demotion to another position with a lower salary, deterioration in working conditions, or any other similar measures, or in the form of any threat to apply such measures;
b) The right if reporting the imposition of any penalty or reprisal among those listed in the previous section, and in accordance with the terms established in the Statute of Workers Rights, to reduce or reorganise his or her working schedule, to geographical mobility, to transfer to another workplace, to voluntary unpaid leave with job security, and to termination of employment with compensation owing to the employer’s serious breach of his or her obligations;
c) The right, if dismissed, to opt for immediate restoration of his or her job under the former conditions, or to payment of compensation for wrongful dismissal, and to the procedural salary in both cases;
d) The right, if working conditions are substantially modified, to immediate restoration of the former conditions, and also to receive the difference in unpaid emoluments during the period of modification should this be the case;
e) Under the terms stipulated in the General Social Security Law, suspension, and termination of a job contract as described in the previous sections will give rise to a situation of official unemployment. The period of suspension will be regarded as one of effective contributions in terms of Social Security and unemployment benefits.
Article 13.- Measures to protect the economic or professional activity of the self-employed whistleblowers and/or facilitators.
Whistleblowers and/or facilitators who are self-employed professionals or workers obliged to cease their activity to make their protection effective, will be exempted from the obligation to pay Social Security contributions or the mutual insurance company in the case of alternative regimes to Social Security, for a period of six months during which they will be considered as effective contributors and eligible for Social Security benefits. In addition, their situation will be considered as equivalent to being registered with Social Security.
1. The whistleblower and facilitator must have only reasonable belief of the plausibility and reliability of the information they report, and of the need to communicate it to provide evidence about the breach. However, verifying the verisimilitude of facts object of the information reported and qualifying them as possible crimes, wrongdoing or actions against the public interest, will be under the responsibility of the organism or institution carrying out the resulting investigation.
2. If the investigation into the alleged facts by a whistleblower concludes that the law was not breached or that there was no wrongdoing affecting the public interest, there will be no negative consequences for either the whistleblower or the facilitator and they will not suffer any penalty or any kind of punitive action. They will continue to enjoy the rights and protection afforded by this Law unless it is proven that the whistleblower or facilitator knew that the information provided was implausible, inaccurate or untrue at the time of the reporting. In this case, the whistleblower’s or facilitator’s conduct will be subject to sanction in accordance with the provisions of Title V.
3. With the exception indicated above, the whistleblower and the facilitator will not be held responsible for any harm or damage that may arise from communication or public disclosure of the information reported, and neither will they incur any type of liability or civil or criminal disciplinary action which may derive from these circumstances and, in particular, including those pertaining to possible attacks on honour and reputation, or infringement of regulations concerning copyright, trade secrets and protection of personal data.
1. Reporting channels must be equipped with mechanisms that provide protection of the anonymity or confidentiality of whistleblowers and facilitators.
2. Information regarding access to the reporting channel, the way anonymity is protected, and the limits thereof must be explained in detail so that a whistleblower has all the information he or she requires, and to ensure that he or she will not be led into error owing to lack of information or for not complying with the information requirements established in this Article and in Article 17.
This information shall be provided by reporting channel’s managers in a concise, fair, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible and understandable manner, in clear and simple language, made available in writing or by other means, including electronic means.
Reporting channels’ managers, taking into account the specific circumstances and context in which the information on breaches is reported, shall provide as many complementary information necessary to guarantee the protection of the anonymity or confidentiality of the whistleblower and/or facilitator.
3. To this end, only those channels can be called anonymous and secure reporting channels mailboxes, telephone lines or mechanisms of electronic communication which can ensure secure access through anonymous browsing and connection. They must clearly explain previously how to use them without exposing one’s identity – including “electronic identity” (Internet Protocol IP) – and how to eliminate metadata so that the documents disclosed do not jeopardise the whistleblower’s anonymity. They must provide the whistleblower with an identifying code or some other kind of secure procedure for following up subsequent action and continuing contact with the whistleblower in a way that does not put his or her anonymity at risk.
Administrations or entities responsible for managing channels will apply adequate technical and organisational measures for protecting data whenever it is collected, conveyed or stored.
4. Channels which do not meet the stipulations described in the section above cannot be publicised as being anonymous and secure and, should this occur, they may be punishable for affecting the whistleblower’s right to indemnity. Reporting channels that while granting only confidentiality do not inform about it may also be punishable. In that sense, confidential reporting channels shall inform that they are not anonymous and secure channels.
5. In any case, right to confidentiality and anonymity as provided for in Article 7 shall be respected.
Article 16.- Types of reporting channels.
The reporting channels provided public and private entities complying with the features of paragraph 3 of the previous article, shall allow for reporting in writing and/or orally by the following means:
a) By post;
b) Via physical complaint mailboxes;
c) Via an online platform (the entity’s intranet or the Internet);
d) By telephone or other voice messaging systems.
Article 17.- Information about reporting channels.
Reporting channels’ managers shall publish in a concise, accurate, transparent, intelligible and easy to access and understand way, with a clear and simple language, and in a separate, identifiable and accessible section of its website, at least, the following information:
a) the conditions under which whistleblowers and facilitators qualify for protection. For example, whistleblowers and facilitators will not be considered as such when they do not include with the information on breaches, evidence or consistent indications that allow a well-founded suspicion of the possible perpetration of irregularities, unlawful acts or omissions, contrary to the legal system or constituting bad practices whose consequences not only affect the Administration or private entity in which they are carried out, but which transcend and are susceptible of harming the general interest;
b) the contact details for using the reporting channels, referred to in the previous article, managed by the private or public entity;
c) the procedures applicable to the reporting of breaches, including the manner in which the entity may request the whistleblower to clarify the information reported or to provide additional information, the timeframe for giving feedback to the whistleblower, the type and content of this feedback and the possible appeals against it;
d) the confidentiality and data protection regime applicable to reports;
e) the remedies and procedures available against retaliation and possibilities to receive confidential advice for persons contemplating making a report;
f) a statement clearly explaining the conditions under which whistleblowers and facilitators would not incur liability in accordance with Article 4;
g) Reporting channels’ managers shall be able to provide prior advice about the content of this Law to persons contemplating making a report in the condition of a whistleblower or facilitator, about information on breaches.
Article 18.- Reporting procedure.
The reporting and follow-up procedures must include and ensure compliance with the following aspects:
a) Maintenance of confidentiality of the identity of the whistleblower, or anonymity when applicable according to Article 7, and of any third party mentioned in the report, and the provided information by the whistleblower, taking the necessary measures and preventing access to non-authorised staff members;
b) The reporting channel shall ensure the durable storage of information, in accordance with Article 22, in order to permit future investigations;
c) The autonomy of the external reporting channel that may or had to be installed by the public entity with respect to the internal reporting channel;
d) An acknowledgment of receipt of the report to the whistleblower within no more than seven days of that receipt if the information has been communicated through reporting channels with enough information to allow the communication with the whistleblower or the facilitator;
I) After the analysis of the reported information by the whistleblower or the facilitator, by means of an attached constitutive declaration to the acknowledgment, the reporting channel’s manager shall inform the whistleblower and/or facilitator about:
– If it considers the information provided information on breaches because it includes evidence or consistent indications and complies with the requirements established by this Law so the whistleblower and/or the facilitator continue to be beneficiaries of the protection granted by it and that the manager can continue to follow-up with the process;
– Or that it considers the information provided does not include evidence or consistent indications about a breach, which is why it considers the process closed.
The Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators, as well as Courts and the Public Prosecutor’s Office, shall have the power to order and request ex officio, when appropriate, the application of appropriate provisional measures of protection and security where, in its opinion, there is a serious danger to the person, liberty or property of the whistleblower and/or facilitator, or the witness, the spouse or the person to whom he or she is linked by an analogous relationship of affectivity, or the ascendants, descendants or relatives of the same up to the second degree of consanguinity or affinity.
The competent authority, if it deems it convenient, shall order and maintain these measures beyond the resolution of judicial and/or administrative proceedings as a consequence of the reporting.
When the whistleblower or facilitator do not agree with the decision of the reporting channel’s manager, they may appeal to the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators or to the competent Courts;
II) When the reporting channel’s manager is not capable to analyse and assess the received information in order to issue the constitutive declaration to the acknowledgment, because of the volume of the information received, the manager can ask for the consent of the whistleblower and/or facilitator to dispatch it to the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators so that it proceeds to conduct its follow-up.
Courts, the Public Prosecutor’s Office, and State Police and Security bodies cannot dispatch the information to the Authority, and shall investigate the reported information;
e) The designation of one, or several, staff members, or a department or a third party, whom shall be impartial, as responsible for the reception of information via reporting channels, so-called channel administrator.
I) When reporting channels are operated by third parties authorized to receive information on breaches by the reporting channels’ managers, principles of independence, confidentiality, data protection and secrecy must be respected along with informative obligations mentioned in Article 17;
II) The channel administrator will be in charge to diligently follow-up with the information on breaches, maintain the communication with the whistleblower, and when necessary, request additional information and maintain the whistleblower informed about the proceeding followed after the reporting.
Channel administrators will be responsible to submit the information on breaches to the competent authorities for investigation and inform the whistleblower about the procedures to follow to be effectively protected under this Law;
III) The channel administrator shall receive professional specific training to manage the reporting channels;
f) The entities responsible for the reporting channel must ensure that, in the case that information on breaches is received through other channels of the public or private entity or by staff members, other than them, these will refer it to them preserving the confidentiality of the information without modifying its content;
g) Information shall be provided, in an easily accessible and understandable manner, about the conditions and procedures to report information on breaches before the competent authorities and, when necessary, to institutions, entities, offices or agencies of the European Union. This information can be published in a visible and accessible place, and be provided in the website of the entity, and may even be provided through staff training courses.
Article 19.- Freedom of choice.
Without prejudice of the obligation of the State to encourage the use of internal reporting channels as the first option to report information on breaches ensuring that these reporting channels offer all guarantees of reliability, security, independence and effectiveness in the detection and lasting resolution of the reported illicit acts and abuses and the protection of the whistleblowers removing all kinds of risk of retaliation, the whistleblower should be able to choose the most appropriate reporting channel to communicate the information on breaches without necessarily having to use any specific reporting channel in the first place or having to justify their choice, and without this representing any limitation of the rights and guarantees enshrined in this Law.
Article 20.- Internal systems.
1. The whistleblower with the status of worker, including civil servants, or of self-employed, or who belongs to the administrative, management or supervisory body, including non-executive members, or volunteers, or paid or unpaid trainees, or any person under the supervision and direction of contractors, subcontractors and suppliers, either when the work-based relationship is yet to begin or has ended, with, or providing services to public or private organisations, may at first, and if he or she considers it appropriate and does not foresee any risk of retaliation, use internal reporting channels, but he or she shall not be forced to use internal channels in the first place, to be able to use external reporting channels.
2. The whistleblower who uses internal channels to report information on breaches is protected by the rights detailed in Title II of this Law.
3. The entity responsible for the reporting channel will inform its employees, contractors, temporary staff and users of the existence of, and conditions to access, the reporting channel and, in particular, with regard to its anonymous and secure nature when the reporting channel complies with the requirements established by Article 15.3, or when this is not the case and just guarantees the obliged confidentiality, must warn of the possible risks for the whistleblower arising from using the channel for reporting information on breaches.
4. No later than 3 months after the acknowledgement of receipt, information shall be provided on the follow-up to the reported information on breaches and, in any event, its outcome. If no acknowledgement of receipt has been sent, this period shall begin to run on expiry of the period for issuing it. The communication of the result must not affect European rules which include possible restrictions on the publication of decisions in the financial and tax field.
5. Companies and organizations with more than 50 employees; the private companies with a turnover or balance sheet of over €10 million; State administrations, Regional administrations and Departmental administrations and Municipalities with more than 10,000 residents, the private legal entities of any size operating in the area of financial services or vulnerable to money laundering and other entities when established by specific legislation, have the obligation to have an anonymous and secure internal reporting channel, as defined in article 15.3. Private entities with a turnover or balance sheet from 2 to 10 million euros shall have an internal reporting channel that guarantees, at least, the confidentiality of the reported information.
The Government may require, by regulatory instruments, require that entities with less than 50 employees establish such internal reporting channels with reference to the nature of their activities, after the corresponding risk assessment.
6. Private entities with more than 50 employees and less than 249 may share resources for the collection and investigation of reported information on breaches, without prejudice to compliance with confidentiality obligations, information about the procedure to the whistleblower and address the non-compliance detected. Reporting channels may be shared between municipalities or by unions of municipalities when the internal reporting channels are autonomous and different to the external reporting channels.
Article 21.- External systems.
1. The State’s Administration and the administrations of the Autonomous Regions must establish an anonymous, secure external reporting channel as defined in Article 15.3 to receive information on breaches related with the activity of any of the entities enumerated in Article 2, than can be used by any person. Any other administrations or entities, public or private, including the media, non-governmental organisations, trade unions, members of legislative chambers, the Ombudsman and analogous institutions, may also establish external reporting channels.
2. The whistleblower using external reporting channels to report information on breaches is protected by the rights detailed in Title II of this Law.
3. No later than 3 months after the acknowledgement of receipt, information shall be provided on the follow-up to the reported information on breaches and, in any event, its outcome. If no acknowledgement of receipt has been sent, this period shall begin to run on expiry of the period for issuing it. The communication of the result must not affect European rules which include possible restrictions on the publication of decisions in the financial and tax field. The three-month period may be extended by up to six months with due justification.
4. The administrators of external reporting channels, after due preliminary examination of the reported information on breaches, may decide that it is a minor breach and does not require follow-up action, notifying its decision and its motivation to the whistleblower, but this decision does not prevent following other procedures or channels to report the information on breaches again.
5. In the event of a large influx of reporting, the administrators of external reporting channels may prioritize those that report infringements of essential provisions that are within the scope of application of the Law or those that are likely to more seriously affect the public interest, without prejudice to compliance with the time limits established in Article 18.d) and paragraph 4 of this Article.
6. Any entity responsible for an external reporting channel that receives information on breaches that it cannot follow up because it does not have the necessary powers, shall forward it to the competent authority without delay.
7. Entities responsible for external reporting channels shall review the procedures established in accordance with this Chapter regularly, and at least once every three years. In this review they shall take into account the experience gained by them and by other entities and authorities and adapt their procedures accordingly.
Article 22.- Storage of information on breaches.
1. Channel managers of both internal and external reporting channels must securely store all reports to ensure that they are accessible and that the information they contain can be used to apply the necessary enforcement or compliance measures. They must be stored for the strictly necessary and proportionate period of time, maintaining confidentiality in all cases and guaranteeing access only to authorised personnel.
2. When the reporting channel consists of a telephone line or voice messaging system, the administrators of that reporting channel, with the consent of the whistleblower, may document the report recording the conversation in a durable and accessible format or by means of a transcription of the conversation made by the reporting channel’s administrators. In the latter case, the whistleblower must be offered the possibility to verify, rectify and accept the transcript of the call, and if he so wishes, to sign it.
When the reporting channel provided consists of a telephone or voice messaging system that does not allow recording, the reporting channel’s manager’s personnel or administrators may document the report precisely indicating the minutes of duration of the conversation, and must offer the whistleblower the to verify, rectify and accept said annotation.
3. When the whistleblower requests to meet personally with a member of the staff of the reporting channel’s manager, the manager must ensure, with the consent of the whistleblower, that the accurate and complete records of the meeting are stored in a durable and accessible way, being able to document it through a recording of the conversation or through annotation and minutes, by the reporting channel’s administrators, offering the whistleblower the possibility to verify, rectify and accept such annotation.
1. The Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators is configured as an entity of public law, with its own legal personality and full capacity to act for the fulfilment of its purposes.
2. The Authority acts with full independence from public administrations in the exercise of its functions in its sphere of action, which corresponds to the scope of application of this Law.
3. The Authority shall be governed by the provisions of this Act. With regard to all that is not provided for in this Law and in its subsequent implementing regulations, the regulations in force on the legal system of the public sector, common administrative procedure, as well as the rest of the rules of general and special administrative law applicable to it, shall apply. In the absence of an administrative rule, common law shall apply.
Article 24.- Purposes and functions.
The purposes and functions of the Authority are the following:
a) Act as an anonymous and secure external reporting channel, in accordance with Article 15.3, for receiving reports with information on breaches;
b) As provided for in article 18.d), issue the acknowledgement of receipt and the constitutive declaration attached to it of the reports with information on breaches received through the external reporting channel provided for in the previous section and those transmitted to it by managers of internal or external reporting channels;
c) Once it is verified that the whistleblower and/or facilitator are beneficiaries of the protection granted by this Law, the Authority must derive ex officio the information on breaches on which they have reported to the institutions, authorities and entities that are competent to carry out an investigation on it, and if applicable, process them and initiate the corresponding administrative or judicial procedures on the reported information on breaches;
d) Legally represent the whistleblower and/or facilitator in any judicial and/or administrative procedure derived from the report in order to maintain his or her identity unrevealed and keeping his or her anonymity;
e) Provide free legal assistance, in coordination with the Bar Associations, to the whistleblowers and facilitators who are beneficiaries of the protection granted by this Law. This legal assistance shall include advice from the moment in which this benefit is recognised for their condition of whistleblower or facilitator, on all aspects related to their report, as well as legal representation and defence in any procedure in which the whistleblower and/or facilitator is a party, either for wanting to initiate it or for being a defendant in any procedure directly linked to the reporting of information on breaches or cause of the reprisals undertaken with the intention of undermining their physical integrity, moral integrity, honour or public opinion on the whistleblower or facilitator.
Pro bono legal assistance by the Bar Associations will be provided in accordance with Article 9 of this Law and the rules applicable and will be requested by the Authority on behalf of the whistleblower and/or facilitator.
Without prejudice to this service, the Authority shall provide a permanent and effective legal aid service to duly advise whistleblowers or facilitators, or persons considering to report information on breaches, at least giving advice on the information contained in Article 17, so that they can make an informed decision on how and when to report. This prior legal assistance, covered by the rights of confidentiality, anonymity and protection of personal data, shall be able to be requested and provided through the reporting channel provided for in paragraph a) of this Article to persons who request it anonymously;
f) At all times, the Authority shall ensure that whistleblowers and/or facilitators do not suffer, during or after its intervention, any type of isolation, persecution or worsening of working or professional conditions, or any type of measure involving any form of prejudice or discrimination. If the Authority is aware that they have been the object, directly or indirectly, of acts of intimidation or reprisals for the fact of reporting information on breaches, it may exercise the corrective or recovery actions it considers, of which it shall leave a record in its annual report. In particular, at the request of the whistleblower and/or facilitator, the Authority may urge the competent body or entity to transfer him or her to another working position, provided that this does not prejudice his or her personal status and professional career and, exceptionally, it may also urge the competent body to grant leave for a specified period of time with maintenance of remuneration.
Protection may be maintained, by means of a resolution of the Authority, even beyond the culmination of the processes in which the Authority intervenes;
g) Collaborate with the managers and administrators of internal and external reporting channels for the effective protection of whistleblowers and/or facilitators who have used their reporting channels;
h) Collaborate with the managers and administrators of internal and external reporting channels to ensure their effectiveness and the protection of whistleblowers and facilitators, with the establishment of clear and stable prior criteria for the control of irregularities within organizations and institutions. To ensure compliance with them, the Authority may formulate requirements addressed to the managers reporting channels to adapt or modify their protocols or procedures of action;
i) Collaborate in the periodic review, and subsequent adaptation, of the reporting procedures established by the managers of reporting channels, which must be carried out at least once every three years in accordance with Article 21.8. In this regard, the Authority shall promote spaces for regular meetings and exchanges with civil society, where its contributions to improving reporting procedures shall be collected.
In any case, the Authority shall ensure the effectiveness, integrity and efficiency of these procedures from the point of view of the protection of whistleblowers and facilitators and shall investigate and sanction any possible complaints of ineffectiveness or abuse on the part of managers and administrators of reporting channels or third parties;
j) Supervise and collaborate with the managers of internal and external reporting channels for the training of the channel’s administrators and manager’s personnel about: the content of the Law on full protection of Whistleblowers; the technical, organizational and legal measures to be used to guarantee the anonymity of whistleblowers and facilitators and their protection; and the procedures to be followed for the Authority to assess whether the whistleblower and/or facilitator comply with the requirements established by this Law to be beneficiaries of its protection. In addition, the Authority may publish training and specialized advisory guides on the protection of whistleblowers and facilitators that include these aspects;
k) Contribute to the creation of a social culture of rejection of fraud, corruption and the concealment of infractions committed by economic and social actors, both public and private, with citizen awareness programs, with possible coordination with public and private entities that value the benefits to the democratic quality provided by the activity of the whistleblowers and facilitators;
l) Collaborate and draw up action proposals with bodies that have similar or analogous functions in the State, Autonomous Communities, in the European Union or in the International sphere;
m) Mandatory reporting on regulatory projects developing this Law or other regulatory projects related to its object;
n) Exercise the sanctioning power in relation to the infractions and sanctions established in this Law;
o) All other powers legally attributed to it.
Article 25.- Delimitation of functions and collaboration.
1. It is understood in any case that the functions of the Authority are, without prejudice to those exercised, in accordance with the specific regulatory regulations, by the State Administration, the Court of Audit, the Ombudsman, as well as institutions equivalent in the State or Autonomous Community level, with control, supervision and protectorate functions included in the scope of application of this Law.
2. The Authority, in accordance with article 24.c), shall ex officio send all the information on breaches at its disposal and shall provide the necessary support to the competent institution or body to carry out the corresponding investigation or inspection, without revealing the identity of the anonymous whistleblower and/or facilitator.
3. In carrying out its tasks, the Authority may provide collaboration, assistance and exchange of information with other institutions, bodies or public entities by means of joint plans and programmes, conventions and protocols for functional collaboration, within the framework of the applicable regulations.
4. The Authority does not have competence over the functions and matters that correspond to the judicial authority, the public prosecutor’s office and the judicial police, nor can it investigate the same facts that have been the object of its investigations. In the event that the judicial authority or the prosecutor initiates a procedure to determine the penal relief of certain facts derived ex officio by the Authority, the Authority shall represent the whistleblower and/or facilitator in these and in all the procedures that may derive from it in accordance with the provisions of Article 24(d).
5. The Authority shall request from the judicial authority and the prosecutor’s office periodic information regarding the proceedings initiated at its request, in order to be able to inform the whistleblower and/or facilitator in accordance with Article 8.
1. Public entities and private natural or juridical persons included in the Authority’s sphere of action shall promptly and diligently assist it in the exercise of its functions, and shall immediately communicate to it any information at their disposal relating to facts that are or may be within the Authority’s competence.
2. Staff working for public and private entities included in the Authority’s sphere of action who impede or hinder the exercise of their functions or who refuse to provide them with the reports, documents or files requested of them, shall incur disciplinary responsibilities.
Article 27.- Access to information.
1. In the exercise of its functions, the Authority may access any information related to the report held by legal persons, public or private, subject to its scope of action, to determine whether the whistleblower and/or facilitator meet the requirements to be beneficiaries of protection.
In any case, access to information shall be governed by the principles of necessity and proportionality, reasons or grounds shall be given about the relation between the information and their activity and these shall be recorded in the file.
2. A request by Authority staff for more information than is necessary for the performance of their duties shall entail the opening of an internal investigation and, where appropriate, the opening of the relevant disciplinary file.
Article 28.- Confidentiality and anonymity, personal data protection.
1. The actions of the Authority must ensure, in all cases, the maximum reserve to avoid harm to the whistleblower and/or facilitator, guaranteeing their anonymity, if this is the option chosen by the whistleblower or facilitator. With respect to the personal data that could constitute part of the information on breaches, the principles and guarantees established by the data protection regulations in force must be respected.
2. The staff of the Authority, in order to guarantee the confidentiality of the actions, is subject to the duty of secrecy over all the information they have access to because of their functions, a duty that persists even after they cease to hold office. Failure to comply with this duty shall give rise to the opening of an internal investigation and, where appropriate, to the initiation of the relevant disciplinary proceedings or legal proceedings commensurate with the seriousness of the offence committed.
3. The obligations of secrecy and maximum confidentiality are especially demanding on the identity of the whistleblower and/or facilitator, as well as in cases of information protected by confidentiality clauses; business, commercial and industrial secrets, capable of providing competitive advantages; personal data; national security information, official or military secrets or classified information; professional secrecy and communications between clients and lawyers; professional secrecy and communications between patients and health professionals; secrecy of judicial deliberations.
In these cases, the information requested by the Authority must be the information necessary to carry out the function provided for in Article 24.a), and the processing of the information must guarantee that no harm is caused to the entities involved.
4. The Authority shall store and maintain custody of the information received in accordance with the indications set forth in Article 22.
1. Annually, within the first three months, the Authority shall give an account of the activity carried out through a report that shall include the actions carried out during the previous year within the scope of its functions.
2. The report shall not contain any kind of personal data and references that allow the identification of the persons affected, except when they are already public as a consequence of a final criminal or administrative sentence.
3. The annual report shall be forwarded to the Congress of Deputies, after the Authority’s Director has appeared before the corresponding commission, and shall be made public through publication in an open format on the Authority’s website.
Article 30.- Recommendations and opinions.
The Authority may draw up recommendations and opinions on matters relating to the protection of whistleblowers and the use of information on breaches.
1. The Authority shall be directed by a Director, who shall exercise the position with full independence, immobility and impartiality in the development of the functions and within the scope of the Authority’s own competencies, and shall always act with full submission to the law. The Director will have the condition of public authority and will be assimilated to a high position with the rank of general director.
2. The term of office of the Director is seven years from the date of his or her election by the Congress of Deputies and shall not be renewable.
3. The Director is elected by the Congress of Deputies among citizens of legal age who enjoy the full use of their civil and political rights and who meet the conditions of suitability, probity and recognized competence necessary to hold office. They must have more than ten years of activity related to the functional scope of the Authority.
4. Candidates for the post will be proposed to the Congress of Deputies by open consultation with citizens and by social organizations currently working against fraud and in favour of human rights. The consultation will give the possibility of proposing candidates and prioritizing them. Prioritization will not be binding but justification by the parliamentary groups shall be given if it is not taken into account. Candidates must appear before the relevant parliamentary committee as part of a public call for this purpose in order to be evaluated in relation to the conditions required for the post. The agreement reached in this committee will be transferred to the Plenary of the Congress.
5. The Director will be elected by the Plenary of the Congress by simple majority.
Article 32.- Incompatibilities.
1. The status of Director of the Authority is incompatible with the exercise of any other office or affiliation to any political party, trade unions or professional or business associations.
2. The regime of incompatibilities established by the legislation applicable to senior posts and the provisions of this law is applicable to the Director of the Authority.
3. The Director of the Authority, in a situation of incompatibility affecting him or her, must cease the incompatible activity within one month of the appointment and before taking office. If he or she does not do so, it is understood that he or she does not accept the appointment. In the case of supervening incompatibility, he must regularise his situation within a maximum period of one month.
Article 33.- Cessation.
1. The director of the Authority shall cease for any of the following reasons:
b) Termination of term of office;
c) Incompatibility supervened if the situation is not regularised within a maximum period of one month for that purpose;
d) Incapacity declared by final judicial decision;
e) Disqualification from the exercise of political rights declared by a final judicial decision;
f) Indictment with adoption of precautionary measures, trial or conviction by final judgement for the commission of an offence;
g) Notorious and serious negligence in the fulfilment of the obligations and duties of the office.
2. If the cause of cessation is the one determined by letter g) of paragraph 1, the dismissal of the Director must be proposed and approved by the relevant parliamentary committee. Before the vote in committee, the Director will be heard, and then the vote will proceed by the absolute majority of its members. The proposal for dismissal must be submitted to the Plenary of the Congress and approved by an absolute majority. In other cases, the Presidency of the Congress will be responsible for the dismissal.
3. Once the dismissal of the Director has taken place, the procedure for a new appointment begins. In the event of the cessation for the cause determined in letter b) of paragraph 1, the Director must continue in office until the new appointment is made. In the rest of the cases, until the new Director is appointed and takes office, the Presidency of the Congress shall appoint an interim Director from among the staff of the Authority.
4. To ensure due publicity and transparency in the process of appointing a new Director, a call for nominations shall be published in the Official State Gazette at least six months before the end of the term of office of the current Director.
Article 34.- Appointment, principles, incompatibilities and dismissal of personnel in the service of the Authority.
1. The posts of the Authority shall be held by career civil servants in the public service. Such staff shall be bound to observe the secrecy of the data, information and documents to which they have access during the performance of their duties in accordance with Article 28.
2. The staff employed by the Authority shall be provided among the civil servants of the Public Administration in accordance with the principles of equality, publicity, merit and ability for the assigned functions. Jobs shall be classified and filled in accordance with the rules governing access to the civil service.
3. The list of posts shall be drawn up and approved by the Authority.
4. The same grounds of incompatibility established for civil servants shall apply to the Authority’s staff.
5. The staff working for the Authority shall cease to work for the reasons determined by the regulations applicable to them respectively.
6. The provisions of this Law regarding selection, training, provision of posts, mobility, remuneration and disciplinary regime for Authority personnel shall be governed by the provisions of the Basic Statute of Public Employees and by the remaining State legislation on matters of public function.
Article 35.- Budget and accounting.
1. For the effective fulfilment of its assigned purposes and functions, the Authority shall have at its disposal sufficient economic resources and its own assets, which shall be independent of the assets of the General Administration of the State.
The financial endowment necessary for the operation of the Authority shall constitute a separate item in the General State Budgets.
2. The management of the Authority shall prepare and approve annually a preliminary draft operating budget referred to in the previous section and shall forward it to the Ministry of Finance and Public Administrations for its subsequent integration into the General State Budget, in accordance with the provisions of Law 47/2003, of 26 November, on the General Budget.
3. The management, administration and disposition of the goods and rights of which the Authority is the holder, as well as that of the patrimony assigned to it for the fulfilment of its purposes, shall conform to the applicable Law.
4. The Authority’s accounts are subject to the principles of public accounting and to the system of authorisation, disposition, obligation and payment to ensure budgetary control. The Authority shall formulate and render its accounts in accordance with General Budgetary Law 47/2003, of 26 November, and the accounting rules and principles contained in the General Public Accounting Plan and its implementing rules.
5. The annual report of the Authority shall contain the budget settlement.
6. Without prejudice to the powers attributed to the Court of Audit by its Organic Law, the economic-financial management of the Authority shall be subject to the control of the General Intervention of the State Administration under the terms established in General Budgetary Law 47/2003, of 26 November.
7. The contracting of the Authority shall conform to the precepts of the legislation on public sector contracts that are applicable in each case.
1. When the content of the reported information on breaches may suggest the possible existence of activity constituting a crime, the entity which has received the report must immediately inform the Examining Court of the judicial district where the events have occurred, for its investigation and prosecution.
2. When the facts do not appear to suggest evidence of a crime but could constitute infringements of the provisions of this Law, the exercise of sanctioning powers corresponds to the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators following the procedures established by Law 40/2015, 1st October, regulating the public sector and Law 39/2015, 1st October, of common administrative procedure.
Article 37.- Obligation to report wrongdoing.
1. Administrative bodies, companies and entities which are responsible for internal or external reporting channels for whistleblowers’ disclosures are obliged to report, without delay, any sign of infraction of whistleblowers’ rights of which they may be aware before the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators. This obligation also applies to individuals responsible for reporting channels.
2. Organs and entities referred to in the section above must refer their report to the following authorities:
a) The disciplinary authority within the public administration or entity which has the power to impose penalties when the alleged offender is a public servant, employee of, or worker in this entity;
b) The Presidency of this body, when the alleged offender is an elected official, director, board member, employer or a person occupying a position of trust who does not come under the jurisdiction of the disciplinary authority described in the section above;
c) The head of Human Resources when the alleged offender is an employee of, or worker in a private entity or company;
d) The president of the board of directors or administrator of the private company or entity, when the alleged offender is an executive, board member or person occupying a senior position and not subject to disciplinary action in the workplace;
e) The public or private contracting authority of any of the aforementioned entities, when the alleged offender is a contractor thereof;
f) The Ombudsman or the Examining Court of the judicial district where the facts have occurred.
Article 38.- Infractions.
1. Any actions or acts of omission contravening the provisions of this Law will be considered violations of the regime protecting the rights of whistleblowers and facilitators, for example, without any pretensions to being exhaustive:
a) hinder or attempt to hinder reporting;
b) take retaliatory measures or persecution against persons protected by this Law;
c) bring vexatious proceedings against persons protected by this Law;
d) breach the duty of maintaining the confidentiality or anonymity with regard to the identity of the persons protected by this Law and with regard to the information on breaches.
2. The infractions described in this Law are classified as very serious, serious, or minor.
a) Considered as very serious infractions are the following:
a.I) violation of the guarantees of anonymity, confidentiality and security set out in this Law, and other violations of the terms under which the reporting channels have been made public;
a.II) disclosure of the identity of the whistleblower when he or she has opted for anonymity, and any infraction of the rule of confidentiality where this applies;
a.III) the actions or omissions tending to reveal the identity of the whistleblower when he or she has opted for anonymity or confidentiality even if the actual disclosure of the identity does not occur;
a.IV) the imposition of penalties or adoption of arbitrary, damaging, persecutory or reprisal measures as a result of the whistleblower’s disclosure when they place the whistleblower or facilitator who suffered them, directly or indirectly, or his or her family, workmates, goods or his or her own private entities or the ones connected to his or her, in a situation of personal harm;
a.V) not having taken the precautions stipulated in Article 4.9 in cases of information officially listed as concerning national security, official or military secrets and other kids of classified material;
a.VI) reporting channels that claim to be anonymous and secure while not complying with the conditions stipulated in Article 15.3 or that do not inform that these reporting channels are not anonymous nor secure;
a.VII) the communication or publication of information on breaches that has been proven false, when the resolution that puts an end to the investigation of the facts generated by the report concludes that the information was false and declares expressly that the whistleblower or facilitator knew it was false when they reported or published it;
a.VIII) non-compliance with the obligations of secrecy and confidentiality of the information on breaches and the other aspects that the reporting procedure established by the entity must guarantee in accordance with Article 18;
a.IX) the suspension or limitation of the rights provided by this Law by means of any type of individual or collective agreement, policy or contract;
a.X) do not have an internal or external reporting channel when it is obligatory under this Law or implementing regulations;
a.XI) unjustified breach or contravention of the duty to cooperate with the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators, for example, not responding to or following up on the information and compliance requirements issued by the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators.
b) Considered as serious infractions are the following:
b.I) the omission of information necessary for using a reporting channel, and the omission, in whole or in part, of the information provided for in Article 17;
b.II) the omission of the right of information and access to the procedure provided in Articles 8, 20.4 and 21.3 of this Law without substantiating anything about the endangerment of the investigation;
b.III) threatening, in all cases constituting information on breaches, to initiate disciplinary procedures or to impose a penalty on the whistleblower or facilitator, and beginning effective procedures for their application when no penalty has been decided;
b.IV) the imposition of sanctions or adoption of damaging measures as a result of the whistleblower’s disclosure of information on breaches when they have caused a situation of temporary personal harm and economic disadvantage to the whistleblower or facilitator who has suffered these penalties or measures, in such a way that no permanent damage is incurred and reasonable compensation is possible, whenever this compensation is calculated to exceed TWO THOUSAND EUROS (€2,000);
b.V) the infringement of the custody and storage terms provided in Article 22;
b.VI) the affectation to the normal performance of the free advisory services of whistleblowers and facilitators offered by Bar Associations or civil society organisations;
b.VII) the requirement to address in the first place internal reporting channels in order to be able to use external reporting channels or the requirement to justify the reporting channel election;
b.VIII) not referring to the competent authority the information on breaches on which the reporting channel’s manager cannot follow-up because it does not have the necessary competencies;
b.IX) omission of the duty to review the reporting procedures and protocols;
b.X) the manifest ineffectiveness of internal or external reporting channels provided.
c) Considered as minor infractions are the following:
c.I) those described in sections b.I) and b.III) when, owing to their minor scope and importance, they cannot be deemed to be serious;
c.II) the communication or publication, of information that has been proven false, when the resolution that puts an end to the investigation of the facts generated by the report concludes that the information contained in it was false and expressly stated that the whistleblower or facilitator has operated in a reckless manner regarding the accuracy and reliability of the information;
c.III) all those actions that contravene the stipulations laid out in this Law when they involve the circumstances described in paragraph b) above and when the damages caused are estimated in financial terms as not exceeding a sum of FIVE THOUSAND EUROS (€5,000).
Article 39.- Penalties.
1. Very serious infractions will be penalised with a fine of between 100,001 and 300,000 euros; serious infractions will be fined between 10,001 and 100,000 euros; and minor infractions will be fined a sum of up to 10,000 euros.
2. Very serious infractions will be sanctioned with disqualification up to three years; the serious, with disqualification up to one year.
3. When the infraction is committed by a public servant or an employee of the public administration, and this violation is directly related with his or her prerogatives, he or she will be penalised with temporary suspension of up to three months in cases of minor infraction; of up to one year in cases of serious infraction; and up to three years or dismissal if the infringement is deemed to be very serious.
4. In any case the application of the remedies provided by this Law may be suspended or limited by any kind of individual or collective agreement, contract, policy or arbitration agreement.
Article 40.- Proportionality in imposition of penalties.
The degree of the penalty will be considered in accordance with the following criteria:
a) The degree of culpability and existence of intentionality;
b) Continuation or persistence of the conduct constituting infraction;
c) The nature of the damage caused;
d) Re-offending by committing, within a period of three years, more than one infraction of a similar nature when the behaviour in question has been officially declared an infraction. The persistence in the infraction by accumulation transforms minor infractions to serious, and serious to very serious.
Article 41.- Statute of limitations.
1. General rules will be applied to the statute of limitations regulating the power of the administration to impose penalties.
2. The restrictions of the statute of limitations will not apply to whistleblowers while they remain in a situation of anonymity, and when reporting of the infraction could occasion any loss or greater damage.
Article 42.- Awarding damages.
1. If the sanctioned conduct has caused damage or harm to any public administration, to any public or private entity, or to a whistleblower or facilitator, the decision of the proceedings will contain an express pronouncement regarding the following extremes:
a) the requirement to the sanctioned person to restore to its original state the situation that has been altered by the infraction;
b) when this is not possible, economic compensation must be offered for any damage caused.
2. Civil liability arising from any infraction will always be shared by all those people who caused the resulting damage unless the decision declaring liability reasonably distributes it among all infractors.
Article 43.- Expiry of proceedings.
1. Proceedings will expire 6 months after they have been initiated if no decision has been made and indicated, although it is necessary to take into account in this calculation possible interruptions for reasons which are attributable to the person or persons concerned, or any suspension which must be agreed upon due to the existence of criminal proceedings when these concern the identity of the subject, the facts and the rationale, until these proceedings have been finalised.
2. The decision declaring the expiry of the proceedings will be conveyed to the interested party or parties, without prejudice to the Authority’s right to agree to initiate new proceedings providing that the infraction is not statute barred. Expired proceedings will not interrupt the statute of limitations.
First additional provision. Follow-up Commission.
This Law will be submitted to a follow-up commission and to revision in the Parliament. This Commission shall provide the European Commission and the European Parliament the information and statistics provided by Article 27 of the Directive (EU) …. 2019/… of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of persons reporting on breaches of Union law.
Second additional provision. Amendment to Law 1/1996, 10th January, on Free Legal Aid
a section j) has been added to Article 2 of the Law cited above, in the following terms:
“j) Independently of the means to institute legal proceedings, the right to free legal aid is recognised and this should immediately be applied to whistleblowers or facilitators who, complying with the requirements detailed in the Law on Full Protection for Whistleblowers, want to bring judicial action or may be charged or investigated in proceedings connected with, deriving from, or the consequence of, their status as such.
For the purposes of granting the benefit of legal aid, the condition of whistleblower or facilitator shall be acquired when a lawsuit, complaint or grievance is filed, or any procedure derived from the report is initiated, and shall be maintained as long as the procedure remains or when, after its completion, a sentence has been issued. The benefit of free legal aid will be lost after the finalization of the sentence, or of the definitive or provisional dismissal due to the facts not being proven, without the obligation to pay the cost of the benefits enjoyed free of charge until that moment.
In the different proceedings that may be initiated as a consequence of the condition of whistleblower or facilitator, it must be the same lawyer who assists him or her, provided that this duly guarantees his or her right of defence.”
Third additional provision. Amendment to Law 1/2000, 7th January, of Civil Procedure.
1. An Article 11 ter. is added in the following terms:
“Article 11 ter. Legitimation for the defence of the rights of whistleblowers and facilitators.
The Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators, in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Full Protection of Whistleblowers, shall also be legitimized for the defence of the rights of whistleblowers and facilitators, in addition to themselves and always with their authorization”.
2. An article 15 ter. of the Law is added in the following terms:
“Article 15 ter. Intervention in processes derived from information on breaches.
The provisions of the foregoing article on procedural matters shall also apply when the European Commission and the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators, within the scope of their powers, consider it necessary to intervene in a process that affects matters relating to the application of Directive (EU) ………… of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Protection of Persons Reporting Violations of European Law and the Law on Full Protection of Whistleblowers”.
Fourth additional provision. Amendment to the Royal Decree, 14th September 1882, passing the Criminal Procedure Code.
1. A paragraph 4 is added to Article 109 bis in the following terms:
“4. Criminal action may also be brought by the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators when authorized by the whistleblower and/or facilitator victim of the crime”.
2. A paragraph 4 is added to Article 265 in the following terms:
“2. The report made under the terms of the Law on Protection of Whistleblowers will not be considered to be a criminal complaint”.
Fifth additional provision. Amendment to Law 29/1998, 13th July, regulating the Contentious Administrative Jurisdiction.
A paragraph j) is added to Article 19.1 in the following terms:
“j) For the defence of the rights of the whistleblowers and facilitators, besides themselves, and always with their authorization, the Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators will also be legitimized in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Full Protection of Whistleblowers”.
Sixth additional provision. Amendment to Law 36/2011, 10th October, regulating Social Jurisdiction.
Article 20 bis is added in the following terms:
“The Independent Authority for the Protection of Whistleblowers and Facilitators may act in a process, in the name and in the interest of the workers and of the officials and statutory personnel who are recognized as whistleblowers or facilitators who so authorize it, for the defence of their individual rights, and the effects of such action shall fall on them”.
This Law will come into force the day after its publication in the Official Gazette.
Xnet with the endorsement of:
Whistleblowing International Network (WIN) – Anna Myers
The Signals – Delphine Halgand
Blueprint For Freespeech – Suelette Dreyfus
Government Accountability Project – Tom Devine
European Center for Whistelblower Rights – Mark Worth
Eva Joly – Anticorruption, magistrate and former MEP
Protect – Francesca West
The Ethicos Group Australia – Howard Whitton
Renewable Freedom Foundation – Moritz Bartl
Transnational Institute – Fiona Dove
Homo Digitalis – Eleftherios Chelioudakis
Debt Observatory in Globalisation (ODG)
Cristina Flesher Fominaya – Social Politics and Media, University of Loughborough
*With legal advice from the partnership Simeó Miquel Adv. Ass.